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British foreign policy and the national interest: identity, strategy and security / [​edited . ten extensively on issues of civil–military relations, strategy making and security policy in . security practices/practitioners, US foreign policy (Cold War and after, interventions by UK forces had disparate and at times conflicting aims.
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Altruistic Punishment and the Origin of Cooperation How did human cooperation evolve? Recent evidence shows that many people are willing to engage in altruistic punishment, voluntarily paying a cost to punish noncooperators. Although this behavior helps to explain how cooperation can persist, it creates an important puzzle. If altruistic punishment provides benefits to nonpunishers and is costly to punishers, then how could it evolve? Drawing on recent insights from voluntary public goods games, I present a simple evolutionary model in which altruistic punishers can enter and will always come to dominate a population of contributors, defectors, and nonparticipants.

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The model suggests that the cycle of strategies in voluntary public goods games does not persist in the presence of punishment strategies. It also suggests that punishment can only enforce payoff-improving strategies, contrary to a widely cited "folk theorem" result that suggests that punishment can allow the evolution of any strategy. Egalitarian Motive and Altruistic Punishment Altruistic punishment is a behaviour in which individuals punish others at a cost to themselves in order to provide a public good. Fehr and Gachter present experimental evidence suggesting that negative emotions toward non-cooperators motivate punishment which, in turn, facilitates high levels of cooperation in humans.

Using Fehr and Gachter's original data, we provide an alternative analysis of the experiment that suggests egalitarian motives are more important than motives to punish non-cooperative behaviour--a finding consistent with evidence that humans may have an evolutionary incentive to punish the highest earners in order to promote equality, not cooperation. His work lies at the intersection of the natural and social sciences, with a focus on social networks, behavior, evolution, politics, genetics, and big data.

James' book Connected is winner of a Books for a Better Life Award , and has been translated into twenty languages. These technologies and methods allow for multi-system level capture of data across environmental, physiological, behavioral, and psychological domains. In the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development ABCD Study, there is great potential for harnessing the acceptability, accessibility, and functionality of mobile and social technologies for in-vivo data capture to precisely measure factors, and interactions between factors, that contribute to childhood and adolescent neurodevelopment and psychosocial and health outcomes.

Here we discuss advances in mobile and wearable technologies and methods of analysis of geospatial, ecologic, social network and behavioral data. Incorporating these technologies into the ABCD study will allow for interdisciplinary research on the effects of place, social interactions, environment, and substance use on health and developmental outcomes in children and adolescents. Egocentric Networks and Physical Activity Outcomes in Latinas Objective Despite data linking the social environment to physical inactivity in Latinas, research on social network predictors of physical activity PA is limited.

This study examined social network predictors of PA change in Latinas. Methods Egocentric network data were collected from adult Latinas egos participating in a randomized controlled PA intervention trial for underactive women. Analyses characterized social network structure, composition, tie strength, homogeneity, and support for PA and determined the relationship between network characteristics and PA outcomes. Results Networks had an average of four social ties alters.

Networks were high in density and transitivity and low in components, indicating high cohesion. Networks were primarily composed of females, Latinos, Spanish-speakers, and family members. Relationship ties were strong as evidenced by close living proximity, in-person contact, high emotional closeness, and long relationship duration.

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There was high homogeneity in demographics and PA behaviors. Multivariate analyses revealed that network size, familial ties, contact frequency, and ego-alter dissimilarities in age and running but similarities in walking, were associated with increased MVPA. Networks high in support for PA in the form of complimenting ego on exercise, taking over chores to allow ego to exercise, and co-participating with ego in exercise were also associated with greater MVPA.

Conclusion These findings contribute to better understanding interpersonal processes that may influence behavior change in a group with especially low levels of PA. Becky Marquez , Gregory J. Norman , James H.

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Weather Impacts Expressed Sentiment We conduct the largest ever investigation into the relationship between meteorological conditions and the sentiment of human expressions. To do this, we employ over three and a half billion social media posts from tens of millions of individuals from both Facebook and Twitter between and We find that cold temperatures, hot temperatures, precipitation, narrower daily temperature ranges, humidity, and cloud cover are all associated with worsened expressions of sentiment, even when excluding weather-related posts.

We compare the magnitude of our estimates with the effect sizes associated with notable historical events occurring within our data. Weight and Weight Control Behaviors of Latinas and Their Social Ties Objective: Shared behaviors have been implicated in the clustering of obesity among socially connected people. This study determined how weight and weight control behaviors of participants and their social ties are related and how these factors are associated with weight change in participants. Method: Adult Latinas participating in a lifestyle intervention completed an egocentric network measure of weight and weight control behaviors.

Participant weight was objectively measured at baseline and 12 months. Multivariable regression models determined the relationship between weight and weight control behaviors of participants and their social ties. Results: Participants and their social ties shared similarities in weight control behaviors and weight change.

Participants who reported social ties that had lost weight were more likely to eat small portions and low-fat foods, but those with social ties that had gained weight were more likely to use herbal supplements. Participants who reported more social ties who exercised, drank liquid meal replacements, took herbal supplements, and self-weighed were more likely to lose weight whereas those with fewer social ties that exercised were more likely to gain weight. Weight loss and weight gain by social ties predicted participant weight loss and weight gain, respectively.

Conclusions: Given that weight and weight control behaviors of Latinas reflect that of their social ties, targeting existing social networks for lifestyle interventions may more effectively improve and sustain health-promoting behaviors and outcomes. Familial Social Structure and Socially Driven Genetic Differentiation in Hawaiian Short-Finned Pilot Whales Social structure can have a significant impact on divergence and evolution within species, especially in the marine environment, which has few environmental boundaries to dispersal.

On the other hand, genetic structure can affect social structure in many species, through an individual preference towards associating with relatives. One social species, the short-finned pilot whale Globicephala macrorhynchus , has been shown to live in stable social groups for periods of at least a decade. Using mitochondrial control sequences from individuals and single nucleotide polymorphisms from individuals, we examine population structure among geographic and social groups of short-finned pilot whales in the Hawaiian Islands, and test for links between social and genetic structure.

This genetic divergence among social groups can make the species less resilient to anthropogenic or ecological disturbance. Conservation of this species therefore depends on understanding links among social structure, genetic structure and ecological variability within the species. Amy M. Van Cise , Karen K. Martien , Sabre D.

British Foreign Policy and the National Interest

Mahaffy , Robin W. Baird , Daniel L. Webster , James H. Fowler , Erin M.

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Oleson , Phillip A. Morin Molecular Ecology 26 23 : — December Digit Ratio 2D:4D and Social Integration: An Effect of Prenatal Sex Hormones The position people occupy in their social and professional networks is related to their social status and has strong effects on their access to social resources. While attainment of particular positions is driven by behavioral traits, many biological factors predispose individuals to certain behaviors and motivations. Prior work on exposure to fetal androgens measured by second-to-fourth digit ratio, 2D:4D shows that it correlates with behaviors and traits related to social status, which might make people more socially integrated.

However, it also predicts certain anti-social behaviors and disorders associated with lower socialization. We explore whether 2D:4D correlates with network position later in life and find that individuals with low 2D:4D become more central in their social environment. Interestingly, low 2D:4D males are more likely to exhibit high betweenness centrality they connect separated parts of the social structure , while low 2D:4D females are more likely to exhibit high in-degree centrality more people name them as friends.

These gender-specific differences are reinforced by transitivity the likelihood that one's friends are also friends with one another : neighbors of low 2D:4D men tend not to know each other; the contrary is observed for low 2D:4D women. Our results suggest that biological predispositions influence the organization of human societies and that exposure to prenatal androgens influences different status seeking behaviors in men and women.

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Haim , Shannon Carcelli , James H. Core-Periphery Structure in Networks Revisited Intermediate-scale or "meso-scale" structures in networks have received considerable attention, as the algorithmic detection of such structures makes it possible to discover network features that are not apparent either at the local scale of nodes and edges or at the global scale of summary statistics. Numerous types of meso-scale structures can occur in networks, but investigations of such features have focused predominantly on the identification and study of community structure.

In this paper, we develop a new method to investigate the meso-scale feature known as core-periphery structure, which entails identifying densely connected core nodes and sparsely connected peripheral nodes.

In contrast to communities, the nodes in a core are also reasonably well-connected to those in a network's periphery. Our new method of computing core-periphery structure can identify multiple cores in a network and takes into account different possible core structures. We illustrate the differences between our method and several existing methods for identifying which nodes belong to a core, and we use our technique to examine core-periphery structure in examples of friendship, collaboration, transportation, and voting networks. For this new SIGEST version of our paper, we also discuss our work's relevance in the context of recent developments in the study of core-periphery structure.

Puck Rombach , Mason A. Porter , James H. Fowler , Peter J. Might climate change—through increases in nighttime heat—disrupt sleep in the future? We conduct the inaugural investigation of the relationship between climatic anomalies, reports of insufficient sleep, and projected climate change. Using data from , U. We observe the largest effects during the summer and among both lower-income and elderly respondents. We combine our historical estimates with climate model projections and detail the potential sleep impacts of future climatic changes.

Our study represents the largest ever investigation of the relationship between sleep and ambient temperature and provides the first evidence that climate change may disrupt human sleep. Mednick , James H. Presidential Election A large-scale experiment during the U. Congressional Election demonstrated a positive effect of an online get-out-the-vote message on real world voting behavior. Here, we report results from a replication of the experiment conducted during the U.

Presidential Election in In spite of the fact that get-out-the-vote messages typically yield smaller effects during high-stakes elections due to saturation of mobilization efforts from many sources, a significant increase in voting was again observed. Voting also increased significantly among the close friends of those who received the message to go to the polls, and the total effect on the friends was likely larger than the direct effect, suggesting that understanding social influence effects is potentially even more important than understanding the direct effects of messaging.

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These results replicate earlier work and they add to growing evidence that online social networks can be instrumental for spreading offline behaviors. Jason J. Jones , Robert M. Might climate change - by modifying the environmental determinants of human physical activity - alter exercise rates in the future?